Essential Hypertension

By on September 1, 2012 with No Comments

Definition of Essential Hypertension

In definition, essential, primary or idiopathic hypertension is a blood pressure in which secondary causes such as renovascular disease and renal failure are not present.

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Although it has been examined that there is no known or identifiable cause for essential hypertension, this is partially true because there is some credible information, which shows that genetic variations that are over expressed or under expressed may cause high blood pressure.

Similarly, intermediary phenotypes, which are regulated by the genes also, may cause elevated blood pressure. Essential hypertension is a form of high blood pressure, which has no identifiable cause. It is also known as primary or idiopathic hypertension. This is the most common type of hypertension and it is said to affect close to 95% of people who are hypertensive.

The condition tends to be familial meaning that people of blood relations show the prevalence to suffer this form of hypertension. There is also a correlation between essential hypertension and interaction with environmental and genetic factors. If your heart pumps more blood and at the same time the arteries are creating more resistance, this leads to high blood pressure.

Apparently, you can suffer from hypertension for many years without showing noticeable symptoms. If your blood pressure is elevated to uncontrollably high levels, this increases the risk of suffering other health complications like stroke and heart attack. As people advance in age, their susceptibility to acquire essential hypertension condition increases.

Those people who show signs of blood pressure in their early ages, they are at a higher risk of developing hypertension. When you suffer hypertension, you increase the risk of suffering other conditions like cardiac, renal and cerebral. Although essential hypertension has no identifiable cause, there are certain risks factors, which are associated with this condition.

If you have a person of family history that shows increased chances of hypertension, then it is likely that the person may suffer the condition. People of family history of hypertension eventually end up suffering from the condition although this may not always be the case. In black people, this essential hypertension is more than 4 times common than in white people.

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The condition accelerates rapidly among blacks and has a high mortality rate in these patients. There are many genes (more than 50 genes) which have been associated with hypertension and one of them is angiotensinogen-AGT gene. Mutation in single genes has also been linked with hypertension.

Age is another factor which is related to essential hypertension. As people age, the vessels become stiff and this can build pressure on the arteries as blood flows. In addition, when there is a decrease in glomerular filtration, this can cause sodium excretion to be reduced. The filtration rate is related to aging and this affects sodium excretion.

It is estimated that one third of people with essential hypertension are responsive to sodium intake. When there is an increase in sodium, the vascular volume increases and there is a rise in the heart output. The local autoregulatory mechanism reacts to this aspect and increases vascular resistance in order to help maintain the normal tension on the vascular beds.

When there is increased sodium intake, the kidney retains water and this fluid increases the volume of blood. Essential hypertension may also be influenced by hypertensinogenic factors such as increased body mass in people who are overweight or obese. There is evidence that obesity, high alcohol intake, insulin resistance, high salt intake and sedentary lifestyles are capable of increasing blood pressure.

These factors are referred to as hypertensinogenic blood pressure determinants. It is estimated that 10% in weight gain can induce 6.5 mmHg increases in systolic or upper blood pressure reading. People who are inactive are more susceptible to suffer hypertensions. This is because inactive people tend to develop high heart rate.

When the heart rate is high, your heart is compelled to work harder in every contraction and this increases the force in your arteries. Using tobacco hardens the vessels reducing their elasticity and this can create pressure as the blood flows. In addition, smoking can damage the walls of your arteries.

Moreover, when you have too much of salt or sodium in your diet, this causes your body to retain fluid that in turn increases blood pressure. When you have very little of vitamin D, this exposes you to risk of suffering high blood pressure. This is because less amounts of vitamin D affects enzymes produced by kidneys, which are related to blood pressure.

Kidney is one of the organs, which play part in the autoregulation of blood pressure. Other risks factors are taking too much alcohol and suffering from chronic diseases like kidney problems, diabetes and sleep apnea.

Treatment of essential hypertension is made to reduce the blood pressure. Diuretics are commonly used to help the kidney excrete more of sodium and water, which have been linked with causing high blood pressure. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors help in blocking the hormone angiotensin II, which is a compound found in blood and has been noted to cause blood vessels to narrow, something which increases pressure of the blood flow.

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